[319] Meanwhile, Mandela was successfully treated for prostate cancer in July 2001. [90] Although a second daughter, Makaziwe Phumia, was born in May 1954, Mandela's relationship with Evelyn became strained, and she accused him of adultery. [217], The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) began in December 1991 at the Johannesburg World Trade Centre, attended by 228 delegates from 19 political parties. [114] He believed that the ANC should form an armed group to channel some of this violence in a controlled direction, convincing both ANC leader Albert Luthuli—who was morally opposed to violence—and allied activist groups of its necessity. [346][347] After a successful medical procedure in early March 2013,[348] his lung infection recurred and he was briefly hospitalised in Pretoria. [162] In 1970, Commander Piet Badenhorst became commanding officer. [412] Privately, he lived an austere life, refusing to drink alcohol or smoke, and even as president made his own bed. [230] The ANC campaigned on a Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) to build a million houses in five years, introduce universal free education and extend access to water and electricity. [152] Initiating the "University of Robben Island", whereby prisoners lectured on their own areas of expertise, he debated socio-political topics with his comrades. [273] In 1994, free healthcare was introduced for children under six and pregnant women, a provision extended to all those using primary level public sector health care services in 1996. Becoming chairman of the militant group, Mandela gained ideas from literature on guerrilla warfare by Marxist militants Mao and Che Guevara as well as from the military theorist Carl von Clausewitz. [313] The following day, he held a grand party with many foreign dignitaries. The action was not authorised by Mandela himself, who was out of the country at the time, but by Buthelezi, who was serving as acting president during Mandela's absence. [278] Under Mandela's administration, tourism was increasingly promoted, becoming a major sector of the South African economy. First, he has provided through his personal presence as a benign and honest conviction politician, skilled at exerting power but not obsessed with it to the point of view of excluding principles, a man who struggled to display respect to all ... Second, in so doing he was able to be a hero and a symbol to an array of otherwise unlikely mates through his ability, like all brilliant nationalist politicians, to speak to very different audiences effectively at once. [261] Emphasising personal forgiveness and reconciliation, he announced that "courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the sake of peace. Nelson Mandela’s son, Thembekile is killed in a car accident 13 July 1969 Thembekile “Thembi” Mandela, the eldest son of Nelson Mandela and Evelyn Mase was killed in a car accident while his father was serving life sentence on Robben Island. [228] Influenced by Thabo Mbeki, Mandela began meeting with big business figures, and played down his support for nationalisation, fearing that he would scare away much-needed foreign investment. [66] Gaining increasing influence in the ANC, Mandela and his party cadre allies began advocating direct action against apartheid, such as boycotts and strikes, influenced by the tactics already employed by South Africa's Indian community. [336] Throughout Mbeki's presidency, Mandela continued to support the ANC, usually overshadowing Mbeki at any public events that the two attended. He visited Japan, but not the Soviet Union, a longtime ANC supporter. [426] On analysing Mandela's writings, the theologian Dion Forster described him as a Christian humanist, although added that his thought relied to a greater extent on the Southern African concept of Ubuntu than on Christian theology. [369] Mandela was known to change his clothes several times a day, and he became so associated with highly coloured Batik shirts after assuming the presidency that they came to be known as "Madiba shirts". [236] The election went ahead with little violence, although an AWB cell killed 20 with car bombs. In November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed Mandela's birthday, 18 July, as "Mandela Day", marking his contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle. "[294] Mandela hoped to resolve the long-running dispute between Libya and the US and Britain over bringing to trial the two Libyans, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103. For other uses, see, First President of South Africa and anti-apartheid activist. [21] He developed a love of African history, listening to the tales told by elderly visitors to the palace, and was influenced by the anti-imperialist rhetoric of a visiting chief, Joyi. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Thembu clan name, Madiba, and described as the "Father of the Nation". Mandela was appointed president of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. [112], Disguised as a chauffeur, Mandela travelled around the country incognito, organising the ANC's new cell structure and the planned mass stay-at-home strike. [174] Despite increasing foreign pressure, the government refused, relying on its Cold War allies US President Ronald Reagan and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; both considered Mandela's ANC a terrorist organisation sympathetic to communism, and supported its suppression. He spent two decades living with him - being cared for, and then caring for his grandfather. [424], He was raised in the Methodist denomination of Christianity; the Methodist Church of Southern Africa claimed that he retained his allegiance to them throughout his life. [102] Together they had two children: Zenani, born in February 1959, and Zindziswa (1960–2020). Both de Klerk and Mbeki appealed to have parts of the report suppressed, though only de Klerk's appeal was successful. Mandela opposed the strike because it was multi-racial and not ANC-led, but a majority of black workers took part, resulting in increased police repression and the introduction of the Suppression of Communism Act, 1950, affecting the actions of all protest groups. For me, there was no contradiction. Baptised a Methodist, Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher. [123] Soon after ANC leader Luthuli was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, MK publicly announced its existence with 57 bombings on Dingane's Day (16 December) 1961, followed by further attacks on New Year's Eve. ... Makaziwe died as an infant in 1948; Madiba Thembekile [Thembi] died in a … He is survived by his third wife, Graáa Machel, whom he married in 1998 on his 80th birthday; his former wife Winnie Mandela and three daughters Pumla Makaziwe, Zenani and Zindziswa Mandela. Though some encouraged him to divorce her, he decided to remain loyal until she was found guilty by trial. [327] He attacked the US more generally, asserting that "If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America", citing the atomic bombing of Japan; this attracted international controversy, although he later improved his relationship with Bush. [250], In December 1994, Mandela published Long Walk to Freedom, an autobiography based around a manuscript he had written in prison, augmented by interviews conducted with American journalist Richard Stengel. [335], Mandela's 90th birthday was marked across the country on 18 July 2008, with the main celebrations held at Qunu,[336] and a concert in his honour in Hyde Park, London. Madiba Thembekile 1945-1969. Openly racialist, the party codified and expanded racial segregation with new apartheid legislation. In 2011, Mandla had exhumed their remains from a burial ground at the family home in Qunu and reburied them at Mvezo, where he … Born in 1945, Mandela's first son was killed in a car crash when he was 25. [322] He gave the closing address at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban in 2000,[323] and in 2004, spoke at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, Thailand, calling for greater measures to tackle tuberculosis as well as HIV/AIDS. [181] Although considering Mandela a dangerous "arch-Marxist",[182] in February 1985 Botha offered him a release from prison if he "unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon". [469] In 1990, India awarded him the Bharat Ratna,[470] and in 1992 Pakistan gave him their Nishan-e-Pakistan. [110] Over the following months, Mandela used his free time to organise an All-In African Conference near Pietermaritzburg, Natal, in March 1961, at which 1,400 anti-apartheid delegates met, agreeing on a stay-at-home strike to mark 31 May, the day South Africa became a republic. [279], Critics like Edwin Cameron accused Mandela's government of doing little to stem the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country; by 1999, 10% of South Africa's population were HIV positive. [427] According to Sampson, Mandela never had "a strong religious faith" however,[428] while Boehmer stated that Mandela's religious belief was "never robust". [62], In July 1947, Mandela rushed Lembede, who was ill, to hospital, where he died; he was succeeded as ANCYL president by the more moderate Peter Mda, who agreed to co-operate with communists and non-blacks, appointing Mandela ANCYL secretary. https://www.nelsonmandela.org/news/entry/honouring-thembekile-mandela Madiba Thembekile Mandela was the older brother of Makgatho having been born in 1944. Mandela, seeing an increase in the physical and mental abuse of prisoners, complained to visiting judges, who had Badenhorst reassigned. [483], Since the late 1980s, Mandela's image began to appear on a proliferation of items, among them "photographs, paintings, drawings, statues, public murals, buttons, t-shirts, refrigerator magnets, and more",[363] items that have been characterised as "Mandela kitsch". The charter was adopted at a June 1955 conference in Kliptown; 3,000 delegates attended the event, which was forcibly closed down by police. [326] In 2003, he spoke out against the plans for the United States to launch a war in Iraq, describing it as "a tragedy" and lambasting US President George W. Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair (whom he referred to as an "American foreign minister") for undermining the UN, saying, "All that (Mr. Bush) wants is Iraqi oil". He is also the founder of the Mandela Project. "[262] He encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated national rugby team, the Springboks, as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Makaziwe Mandela siblings are the late Makgatho Lewanika, the late Makaziwe, and the late Madiba Thembekile. A complete look at Nelson Mandela's very large family tree. [451] Meredith stated that in becoming "a potent symbol of resistance" to apartheid during the 1980s, he had gained "mythical status" internationally. The ANC forced her to step down from the national executive for misappropriating ANC funds; Mandela moved into the mostly white Johannesburg suburb of Houghton. [376] He sought to target symbols of white supremacy and racist oppression rather than white people as individuals, and was anxious not to inaugurate a race war in South Africa. The only African-run law firm in the country, it was popular with aggrieved blacks, often dealing with cases of police brutality. [179] He was appointed patron of the multi-racial United Democratic Front (UDF), founded to combat reforms implemented by South African President P. W. Botha. [69], Mandela took Xuma's place on the ANC national executive in March 1950,[71] and that same year was elected national president of the ANCYL. [188] Mandela requested talks with Botha but was denied, instead secretly meeting with Minister of Justice Kobie Coetsee in 1987, and having a further 11 meetings over the next three years. He is the co-founder and co-chairman of Africa Rising Foundation. [367] He was a practical politician, rather than an intellectual scholar or political theorist. We have been shocked to wake to the news of the untimely passing of Zindziswa Mandela. [487] Some of these, such as the 2013 feature film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom and the 1996 documentary Mandela, have focused on covering his long life, whereas others, such as the 2009 feature film Invictus and the 2010 documentary The 16th Man, have focused on specific events in his life. [241] Mandela headed a Government of National Unity dominated by the ANC—which had no experience of governing by itself—but containing representatives from the National Party and Inkatha. [370] He also spoke of an influential African ethical tenet, Ubuntu, which is a Ngnuni term meaning "A person is a person through other persons" or "I am because we are. That speech—which was inspired by Castro's "History Will Absolve Me"—was widely reported in the press despite official censorship. [453] Within a decade of the end of his presidency, Mandela's era was being widely thought of as "a golden age of hope and harmony",[454] with much nostalgia being expressed for it. [267] Mandela praised the commission's work, stating that it "had helped us move away from the past to concentrate on the present and the future". [163] He was replaced by Commander Willie Willemse, who developed a co-operative relationship with Mandela and was keen to improve prison standards. [227] Soon after, Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Norway. "[385], Mandela advocated the ultimate establishment of a classless society,[386] with Sampson describing him as being "openly opposed to capitalism, private land-ownership and the power of big money". He hoped that Ramaphosa would succeed him, believing Mbeki to be too inflexible and intolerant of criticism, but the ANC elected Mbeki regardless. [286], Mandela expressed the view that "South Africa's future foreign relations [should] be based on our belief that human rights should be the core of international relations". [375] When endorsing violence, he did so because he saw no alternative, and was always pragmatic about it, perceiving it as a means to get his opponent to the negotiating table. [37] He helped to found a first-year students' house committee which challenged the dominance of the second-years,[38] and at the end of his first year became involved in a Students' Representative Council (SRC) boycott against the quality of food, for which he was suspended from the university; he never returned to complete his degree. [100] She withdrew her petition of separation in November, but Mandela filed for divorce in January 1958; the divorce was finalised in March, with the children placed in Evelyn's care. After Ndaba was born his family moved to the Eastern Cape. Mandela enjoyed home life, welcoming his mother and his sister, Leabie, to stay with him. [59] Their first child, Madiba "Thembi" Thembekile, was born in February 1945; a daughter, Makaziwe, was born in 1947 but died of meningitis nine months later. [289] Inspired by the region's economic boom, Mandela sought greater economic relations with East Asia, in particular with Malaysia, although this was prevented by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Based on the responses, a Freedom Charter was drafted by Rusty Bernstein, calling for the creation of a democratic, non-racialist state with the nationalisation of major industry. [50] He later stated that he experienced no epiphany, but that he "simply found [himself] doing so, and could not do otherwise. Although criticised by socialist ANC members, he had been encouraged to embrace private enterprise by members of the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties at the January 1992 World Economic Forum in Switzerland. [15] Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Mandela later admitted that he had personally neglected the issue, in part due to public reticence in discussing issues surrounding sex in South Africa, and that he had instead left the issue for Mbeki to deal with. [229], With the election set for 27 April 1994, the ANC began campaigning, opening 100 election offices and orchestrating People's Forums across the country at which Mandela could appear, as a popular figure with great status among black South Africans. Mandela and Justice arrived a day late for the funeral. [108], Responding to the unrest, the government implemented state of emergency measures, declaring martial law and banning the ANC and PAC; in March, they arrested Mandela and other activists, imprisoning them for five months without charge in the unsanitary conditions of the Pretoria Local prison. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government. Zindziswa "Zindzi" Mandela, the youngest daughter of anti-apartheid revolutionaries Nelson and Winnie Mandela and a South African Ambassador to Denmark, died on Monday at the age 59, the Nelson Mandela Foundation said in a statement. [212] At the ANC's July 1991 national conference in Durban, Mandela admitted that the party had faults and announced his aim to build a "strong and well-oiled task force" for securing majority rule. He was part of the team for the Mandela Centenary in 2018. He studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. The eldest son of Nelson Mandela, Madiba Thembekile, a.k.a Thembi died in a car accident on 13 July 1969, when Mandela was still in jail. [53] Joining the ANC, he was increasingly influenced by Sisulu, spending time with other activists at Sisulu's Orlando house, including his old friend Oliver Tambo. [358][359] Approximately 90 representatives of foreign states travelled to South Africa to attend memorial events. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. [60] Mandela enjoyed home life, welcoming his mother and his sister, Leabie, to stay with him. [372] In doing so he synthesised both counter-cultural and hegemonic views, for instance by drawing upon ideas from the then-dominant Afrikaner nationalism in promoting his anti-apartheid vision. "[447] He is often cited alongside Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. as one of the 20th century's exemplary anti-racist and anti-colonial leaders. He strongly opposed the 1999 NATO intervention in Kosovo and called it an attempt by the world's powerful nations to police the entire world. [434] He could be stern and demanding of his children, although he was more affectionate with his grandchildren. [127] After the symposium, he travelled to Cairo, Egypt, admiring the political reforms of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and then went to Tunis, Tunisia, where President Habib Bourguiba gave him £5,000 for weaponry. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party (SACP). [254] In 1986, Mandela's biographer characterised him as "the embodiment of the struggle for liberation" in South Africa. [437] Mandela's second wife was the social worker Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, whom he married in June 1958. [304] De Klerk opposed the implementation of this constitution, and that month he and the National Party withdrew from the coalition government in protest, claiming that the ANC were not treating them as equals. The campaign was designed to follow the path of nonviolent resistance influenced by Mahatma Gandhi; some supported this for ethical reasons, but Mandela instead considered it pragmatic. [225] Following the murder of ANC activist Chris Hani, Mandela made a publicised speech to calm rioting, soon after appearing at a mass funeral in Soweto for Tambo, who had died of a stroke. These projects were followed by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and the 46664 campaign against HIV/AIDS. [402] His aristocratic heritage was repeatedly emphasised by supporters, thus contributing to his "charismatic power". [478] On the Day of Reconciliation 2013, a bronze statue of Mandela was unveiled at Pretoria's Union Buildings. It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others, commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement. In keeping with earlier agreements, both de Klerk and Thabo Mbeki were given the position of Deputy President. [343], In February 2011, Mandela was briefly hospitalised with a respiratory infection, attracting international attention,[344][345] before being re-admitted for a lung infection and gallstone removal in December 2012. [17] Feeling "cut adrift", he later said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". The book is titled, "Going to the Mountain: Life Lessons from My Grandfather, Nelson Mandela. He agreed to do so on the conditions that all political prisoners be released, that Zulu traditional weapons be banned, and that Zulu hostels would be fenced off, the latter two measures intended to prevent further Inkatha attacks; de Klerk reluctantly agreed. [252] By 1995, he had entered into a relationship with Graça Machel, a Mozambican political activist 27 years his junior who was the widow of former president Samora Machel. [271] In adopting this approach, Mandela's government adhered to the "Washington consensus" advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. He endorsed national reconciliation, an idea he did not merely foster in the abstract, but performed with panache and conviction in reaching out to former adversaries. We hope, even at this late hour, that our first actions will awaken everyone to a realization of the dangerous situation to which Nationalist policy is leading. [476], In 2004, Johannesburg granted Mandela the Freedom of the City,[477] and in 2008 a Mandela statue was unveiled at the spot where Mandela was released from prison. He later stated that he did not join the party because its atheism conflicted with his Christian faith, and because he saw the South African struggle as being racially based rather than as class warfare. [370] Mandela nevertheless also expressed admiration for what he deemed to be indigenous forms of democracy, describing Xhosa traditional society's mode of governance as "democracy in its purest form". [223] The duo agreed on an interim constitution based on a liberal democratic model, guaranteeing separation of powers, creating a constitutional court, and including a US-style bill of rights; it also divided the country into nine provinces, each with its own premier and civil service, a concession between de Klerk's desire for federalism and Mandela's for unitary government. [232] Mandela devoted much time to fundraising for the ANC, touring North America, Europe and Asia to meet wealthy donors, including former supporters of the apartheid regime. [246], Aged 76, he faced various ailments, and although exhibiting continued energy, he felt isolated and lonely. [383], According to Lodge, Mandela's political thought reflected tensions between his support for liberal democracy and pre-colonial African forms of consensus decision making. In August, one charge was dropped, and in October the prosecution withdrew its indictment, submitting a reformulated version in November which argued that the ANC leadership committed high treason by advocating violent revolution, a charge the defendants denied. [444] One biographer considered him "a modern democratic hero". [185] He was met by "seven eminent persons", an international delegation sent to negotiate a settlement, but Botha's government refused to co-operate, calling a state of emergency in June and initiating a police crackdown on unrest. [96] The tenets of the Freedom Charter remained important for Mandela, and in 1956 he described it as "an inspiration to the people of South Africa". [253], —Rita Barnard, The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela[254], Presiding over the transition from apartheid minority rule to a multicultural democracy, Mandela saw national reconciliation as the primary task of his presidency. [265] Among the latter was his estranged wife, Winnie, who accused the ANC of being more interested in appeasing the white community than in helping the black majority. [79], In 1952, the ANC began preparation for a joint Defiance Campaign against apartheid with Indian and communist groups, founding a National Voluntary Board to recruit volunteers. [247] He often entertained celebrities, such as Michael Jackson, Whoopi Goldberg, and the Spice Girls, and befriended ultra-rich businessmen, like Harry Oppenheimer of Anglo-American. His oldest daughter Ndileka Mandela, was four years old when her father died. [479] Madiba Thembekile would have turned 69 on February 23. Mandela stated that they chose sabotage because it was the least harmful action, did not involve killing, and offered the best hope for racial reconciliation afterwards; he nevertheless acknowledged that should this have failed then guerrilla warfare might have been necessary. On 13 April 1992, Mandela publicly announced his separation from Winnie. [378], Although he presented himself in an autocratic manner in several speeches, Mandela was a devout believer in democracy and abided by majority decisions even when deeply disagreeing with them. However, under pressure from the PRC, in November 1996 he cut recognition of Taiwan, and in May 1999 paid an official visit to Beijing. [421] He was fond of Indian cuisine,[422] and had a lifelong interest in archaeology[423] and boxing.

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